Gender Differences In Mental Health Disorders

According to World Health Organization, health is defined as the absence of disease anddisability, individual’s physical, mental and social well-being. In that case, Mental health can be defined to live in peace with him/herself and the others. This adaptation is not bound by strict rules, it carries a certain degree of flexibility and variability. In the situation of mental ilness, unusual deviations and irregularities are observed in the behavior of human thoughts and feelings. People with mental illness’s  harmony with the outside world is broken and their relationship with people is shaken. Deteriorations in mental health generally start slowly. Patient’s relatives don’t realize this slow deterioration  and they usually connect this situation to a number of vital events. These disorders are particularly occur in adolescence period and they are perceived as a youth problem.

Abnormal behaviors were previously classified as neurotic and psychotic disorders. Neurotic disorders are mild, psychotic disorders are serious illnesses. In neurotic disordes, Individuals canmaintain their own life; However, Individuals need to someone else’s help in psychotic disorders.Neurosis patients don’t lose their reality bonds, Psychosis patient can not distinguish reality and imagination. At the present time, because of there are more than 250 diseases group have been defined, this distinction of  neurotic&psychotic is not used. Major diseases are as follows:
Alcohol and Drug Depence
Substance abuse is the need to constantly use substances. Patients know all physical and psychological problems caused by substance abuse and they are sincere in desiring to leave the use of substances; However, they can not be successful. This leads to patients leaving important social and professional activities.
Anxiety

Anxiety is defined as the situation of emotional upset, boredom and unpleasant emotive concern. It causes people to live in constant worry and tension. Patients find themselves incompetent and easily enter into a depression. Because of they can’t be concentrated and they are afraid of to make mistake, they have difficulty making decisions.

Depression

People with depression don’t enjoy anything in life.  They are pessimist and feel like a excessive guilty. They like silence and they are quiet. Patients are hopeless, they can’t be concentrated during depression. There is loss of interest  and sleeping disorders in their daily life. Thoughts of death and suicidal ideas are commonly observed.

Paranoia

The most significant symptom in paranoia are hallucinations. Generally, patients believe that they are celebrity person. For this reason, they allege that they are followed by someone and someone else want to kill them. Except delusions, any thougt disorders is observed.
Panic Attack

Repetitive intense boredom or fear seizures are defined as panic attacks. They usually be abruptly. During attacks, heart palpitation, swearing, shortness of breath, chest pain and dizzines are observed body symptoms.

Phobia

Phobia is the extraordinary and unwarranted fears which development against certain objects and situations. People with phobia consciously avoid these objects and situations. Even, when they think about them, they show a significant stress response. Fear of extremism is known by patient. Phobia is a fear which arise by learning. Conditioning occurs with the negative experience with the feared object or situation and this extreme fear caused phobia.

Schizophrenia

People with schizophrenia cut off from the outside world. They can not distinguish reality and imagination. They see illusions and hallucinations. They may behave unexpectedly aggressive.There are emotional dullness in patients. Establishing emotional communication with them is difficult. There is lack of an emotional response. Patients sometimes sit in a chair for hours doing nothing. They are incapable of self-care.  They have less energy and desire. The content of the speech and speech are impaired. Patient makes illogical conclusions and they are likely to commit suicide.

Somatoform Disorder

Somatic complaints which are unexplained with any organic reasons are defined as Somatoform Disorder. People who have this disorder always have complaints so they frequently go to the doctor and they want to receive medical and surgical treatment applications. Spontaneous healing is very rare in this disorder.

Mood Disorders

Experienced sadness and happiness which are not associated with incident and severe & long-term are defined as mood disorders. There are differences between individuals with mood disorders.

Even mood disorders are varied, most common disorders are manic and depressif formats. Patients keep change into between to mood or they can be stuck in either.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a mental disorder which is dominated by obsessions and compulsions. Obsession is repetitive thoughts which cause trouble on people. Managing and eliminating with this instrusive thoughts are almost impossible for patients with OCD.  These actions can be mental or behavioral. Most common OCD symphtoms are repetitive hand washing, repeatedly checking things, over doubting and obsession of counting.

Gender Differences

When mental disorders are examining, several differences were observed in either gender. These differences are particularly pronounced in incidence in both sexes. As a result, compared to men, women are seen as more likely to have mental disorders and they are observed as more prone to mental deterioration.Some mental disorders which contain gender differences are as follows:

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  (PTSD)

Posttraumatic stress disorders can develop after people which are exposed traumatic events such as natural disasters, wars, accidents, serious injury, rape, child marriage, domestic violence, torture, female genital mutilation and getting serious deadly diseases.

Even PTSD is especially observed in returned U.S soldiers from Vietnamese War, Compared to men, it has been observed in women more than 2-3 times in the world. According to official records which are taken from Nicholos D. Kristof ‘s book; Half the Sky: Every year approximately  100,000 young girls are kidnapped for prostitution. Also, there are a total of 130 billion circumcised women around the world and 3 billion is added each year from Africa. In addition to these a women is raped every half hour In India and 21% of the women in Ghana have their first sexual experiences with rape. 17% of the women in Nigeria have had to face rape or attempted rape until the age of 19. 21% of the women in South Africa are raped until they are 15.

Dissociative Identity Disorder- Multiple Personolity (DID)

Dissociative identity disorder is seen, compared to males, 8-9 times more often in females. The main reasons why DID is more common in females are cases of incest, sexual abuse and rape which are encountered by women in their childhood period .Too many patients with DID are trying to cope with trauma by creating personalities that can lift the burden of this trauma. They are trying to alleviate their distress by seperating memories from consciousness and some of their personalities don’t remember anything about a bad experience.

Anorexia Nervoza

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by immoderate food restriction. People who have anorexia are obsessed to have a thin figure, and they are too much afraid of weight gain. This disorder is generally seen between 10-30 years of age. Compared to male, it is 10 to 20 times more common in females. Also, according to the researches,  70% of patients are women and one in every 200 women in the world is anorexia. In addition to these, there are many fashion models and ballerinas in patients.

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person regularly binge-eats. It cause attacks and during these attacks, person eats too much and then tries to compensate for that behavior by over-exercising and purging by vomiting or s/he uses laxatives. Person can tries these two way at the same time. This disorder is generally seen between 15-30 years of age and compared to male, it is 10 times more common in females. The main reason is social pressure to have the slim body line. Most of patients with bulimia’s weight is generally within normal limits; However, They are always worrying about their appearence and they are obsessed with their sexual attraction.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
If some emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms which occurs before and during the menstrual period, are enough severe to disrupt the course of dailylife, it is given the name of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. In psychiatric diagnosis book DSM-IV, it is defined as mood disorders. Premenstrual symptoms is seen in seventy percent of women. In contrast, premenstrual dysphoric disorder is seen very small part of society.  There are many physical symptoms such as unhappiness, sadness, constant crying, dying wishes, suicidal ideas, a sense of helplessness, mood swings, uncontrollability of anger, hypersensitivity to sound and smell.

According to the study, the average age of the symptoms is 20s and the age of those admitted for treatment were observed in the average age of 30s.Also, other studies show that mood disorders are observed in patients with PMDD ‘ s first or second degree relatives. In another research conducted in this area shows that  major depressive disorder were found in  65% of patients ‘s first-degree relatives.
Psychological Problems Encountered During Pregnancy and Postpartum Period
Depression and psychological distress characterized disorders are common in the period after pregnancy and childbirth. These diseases prevents woman to take good care of themselves in their pregnancy period and it makes them incapable to care for their babies after chilbirth.

These problems can be grouped under three headings from mild to severe;

  1. Postpartum Blues : Variability in mood and crying episodes are the most frequent symptoms. Although the reason is not clear, after birth, sudden decline in hormones and other biological changes are thinked to be reasons. It is reported that it is seen  in 30% to 80%  of women.
  1. Postpartum Depression: The disease usually ends in 3-4 months, it rarely continues longer than 1 year.  The main symptoms are psychological breakdown , loss of interest in the environment, feeling of inadequancy, insomnia or hypersomnia , a loss of interest , feeling worthless, recurrent thoughts of suicide and death.
  1. Postpartum Psychosis: It is the most severe part of postpartum period. Risk is increased in patients with manic-depressive illness. The main symptoms are severe depressive psychology, feeling worthless and guilt, confusion in thought, cockiness , auditory and visual hallucinations, insomnia and hyperactivity. Behavior may have a tendency to kill in severe forms. This behavior may be against the person or baby.

Vaginismus

Vaginal muscle spasm which makes any kind of vaginal penetration painful or impossible is defined as vaginismus. In psychology, vaginismus is defined as ‘anxiety disorder’ or ‘sexual phobia’. According to Institute for Sexual Health Association (CISED) ‘s studies, approximately, one out of every ten women have vaginismus in Turkey.

The main psychological reasons are cognitive distortions and moral concepts. Exaggerated and false stories about the first night which are heard from relatives and friends causes people to have problems during sexual intercourse by settling subconscious. Also, women which receive “sexual protection” messages, because of the instinct to protect themselves, they encounter with vaginal muscle spasm and it impedes relations.

Women with vaginismus may think that it is deficiency so they are useless. Because of this, they can isolate themselves from social life and this can cause other problems. Depression is frequently seen in most cases of vaginismus patients. Vaginismus patients are blamed themselves for failing. They feel worthless and defective. So, social phobia may occurs. Social Phobia is staying away from vital,social and economic activities. People with social phobia avoide to meet new people.

Treatment of Abnormal Behaviors

A result of the treatment, even the recovery rate is very high, there is a possibility of recurrence of the disease in some behavioral disorders. Therefore, patients shall be followed for long times. In general, the treatment of abnormal behavior has 3 type of therapies. These are, biological-medical, psychotherapy, and other therapies.Besides the biological and psychological treatments, occupational therapy, art therapy, music therapy as treatments are also available.

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Project 8

                                                           

I decided to make my final project about Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). I chose this topic to create awareness about this psychiatric disease and to demonstrate the differences between gender interms of rate of incidence.  Also, the second reason why I chose this topic is my department. I have been studying psychology and I think that this study bring me many new information so I really wonder this topic.

I have a plan in my mind about my assignment. I will start my project by giving general information and by emphasizing the seriousness of DID. After this opening part,  I will talk about rate of incidence and  I will start to give a more specific information to state the differences between gender. Then, I will examine reasons which cause this differences and their effects. Finally, I will add many photographs and graphics on my project to make it more interesting and academic.

This week, I researched my topic and I made some preparations for my assignment. Also, I found some references and I think, they will be helpful when I start to create my project :

Gillig, P. M. (2009) Dissociative Identity Disorder, A Controversial Diagnosis.

        Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/

Goldberg, J.  (2014, May 31 ) Dissociative Identity Disorder, Multiple Personality

        Disorder. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/

Psych Central (2013) Dissociative Identity Disorder Symptoms. Retrieved from

        http://psychcentral.com/

Ringrose J. (2012) Understanding and Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder.

        London: Karnac Books. ISBN 978-1-78049-033-5.

Simeon, D. ( 2008, June) Dissociative Identity Disorder, Retrieved from      

            http://www.merckmanuals.com/

                                                                                                                                                                        Helin Azizoglu

 

                                                                                                                                                                        11324054

Project #7

I decided to make my  final project about Natural Inequalities between People. I chose this topic to create awareness about that inequalities divided into categories and remark the differences between them. Also, the second reason why i chose this topic is my knowledge that famous philosopher and thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau has a discourse about inequalities between people so i also wonder this study.

I have a plan in my mind about my assignment. I will start my project by giving general information and by emphasizing the importance of equality. Then,  i will talk about inequality between people.  After this opening part, i will start to give a more specific information to state the categories. Also, i will add graphics and photographs on my project to make it more interesting and academic.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Helin Azizoglu

                                                                                                                                                                                       11324054

Project #6


2af520a202799f313c43d4a0937c6db3

NELSON MANDELA
18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013

One of the world’s biggest freedom fighters, South Africa’s first black chief executive and first black lawyer: ” Mandela ”

His history began with his struggle for freedom. He spent his young life fighting for the freedom of South Africa’s black population from oppression imposed by the minority government. He was imprisoned for 27 years. Soon after release, he became the first president of South Africa in elections and he gave great priority to reconciliation between the races. Today, he continues to be a source of inspiration for civil rights activists worldwide…

Apartheid Era

Apartheid era is the name which given to the period between the years 1948-1994 in the Republic of South Africa. In this period, people were divided into three groups by government: Whites, Hybrids and Blacks.

Pre-Apartheid Era

After African natives, people who came first to South Africa are from Dutch (Boer) . After the Dutch, the Britons came in 1795 and they occupied their territory . The Boer War happened between the British and Boer in 1899-1902 and British who are winner, captured gold deposits and established dominance in South Africa. After the war, while the British have all privileges thanks to their new constitution, black people have begun been exploited by a racist policy. Thereupon, blacks founded the African National Congress (ANC) and asked for the return of the rights they used to have, but their request was rejected by the government. The vote right was taken away from the black. National Party’s racist policies was not limited with it .Discrimination were in schools,public toilets, bus stations. “for whites only” signs were hung. Marriage between white and non-white was forbidden.

010612-global-apartheid-vs-jim-crow          aa

During Apartheid Era

National Party came to power in 1948 and apartheid era began officially. In 1952, Nelson Mandela became the ANC leader. Government wanted to Mandela to cut his relationship with the ANC but Mandela didn’t do it and he supported violence-free protests. Also he met with friends and secretly made a decision to initiate a strike. They prepared a underground sabotage program, which they called Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) and period was beginning to put violence against violence. Mandela was arrested in 1962 and he was sentenced to 5 years. In 1963, police discovered the location of Umkhonto we Sizwe, Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment and the ANC was closed.
In these years, the apartheid era was continuing. Especially, pressure increased on the black children in schools and it caused “Children’s Rebellion” . Police was suppressed rebellion in a bloody way, hundreds of children were killed. All the world’s eyes were turned to South Africa. Despite the government’s ban ,some images was leaked to the world press . Other countries began to impose sanctions and the economy was shaken. Thereupon in 1990, F.W.Klerk declared to make changes and he was elected as the new President of South Africa. Then, Klerk released Mandela on 11 February 1990, the ANC re-opened and negotiations between the ANC and the government has started.

w        r  t          y

Since 1990 Till Now

The new President of South Africa, Klerk lifted the apartheid laws. Blacks and Whites were equal then now. Right of vote were given back to the Black. In the elections of 1994, Nelson Mandela became the president of South Africa. Thanks to the constitution which entered into force in 1997, race, language and religion were no matter, all people considered to be equal. Infrastructure works started in the country, schools were opened, electricity and water were given to places where black people live. Trade promotion programs were prepared. Rapid development began in the country and today, South Africa is one of the richest countries in the world interms of gold and diamond…

u
F. W. de Klerk outside his office after the referendum to end apartheid, March 1992.

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What about Gini in South Africa ?

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As can be seen in the table to the left (taken from Race, Class, and Inequality in South Africa), the Gini coefficient for the white population in 1975 stood at a relatively low .36, signifying the success of the apartheid government in bolstering the position of the poorer members of the white community. An essential component of this program was the reservation of well-paying jobs for the white population. Furthermore, when taking into account welfare expenditures and educational opportunities, the white population actually had greater equality than the Gini index shows.

Of course, this leveling of the economic differences within the white population was dependent on the widening gap between white South Africans and everyone else, especially the black Africans. Because the apartheid government restricted the professions that blacks could choose, blacks were basically limited to lower-level jobs. In fact, this upper limit also facilitated an increase in equality within the black population, as even the well-educated blacks could not find well-paying jobs.

Helin Azizoglu
11324054

Sources:

http://www.geocurrents.info/economic-geography/inequality-trends-in-south-africa

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~shafi20k/nelson%20mandela.html


2af520a202799f313c43d4a0937c6db3

NELSON MANDELA
18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013

One of the world’s biggest freedom fighters, South Africa’s first black chief executive and first black lawyer: ” Mandela ”

His history began with his struggle for freedom. He spent his young life fighting for the freedom of South Africa’s black population from oppression imposed by the minority government. He was imprisoned for 27 years. Soon after release, he became the first president of South Africa in elections and he gave great priority to reconciliation between the races. Today, he continues to be a source of inspiration for civil rights activists worldwide…

Apartheid Era

Apartheid era is the name which given to the period between the years 1948-1994 in the Republic of South Africa. In this period, people were divided into three groups by government: Whites, Hybrids and Blacks.

Pre-Apartheid Era

After African natives, people who came first to South Africa are from Dutch (Boer) . After the Dutch, the Britons came in 1795 and they occupied their territory . The Boer War happened between the British and Boer in 1899-1902 and British who are winner, captured gold deposits and established dominance in South Africa. After the war, while the British have all privileges thanks to their new constitution, black people have begun been exploited by a racist policy. Thereupon, blacks founded the African National Congress (ANC) and asked for the return of the rights they used to have, but their request was rejected by the government. The vote right was taken away from the black. National Party’s racist policies was not limited with it .Discrimination were in schools,public toilets, bus stations. “for whites only” signs were hung. Marriage between white and non-white was forbidden.

010612-global-apartheid-vs-jim-crow          aa

During Apartheid Era

National Party came to power in 1948 and apartheid era began officially. In 1952, Nelson Mandela became the ANC leader. Government wanted to Mandela to cut his relationship with the ANC but Mandela didn’t do it and he supported violence-free protests. Also he met with friends and secretly made a decision to initiate a strike. They prepared a underground sabotage program, which they called Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) and period was beginning to put violence against violence. Mandela was arrested in 1962 and he was sentenced to 5 years. In 1963, police discovered the location of Umkhonto we Sizwe, Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment and the ANC was closed.
In these years, the apartheid era was continuing. Especially, pressure increased on the black children in schools and it caused “Children’s Rebellion” . Police was suppressed rebellion in a bloody way, hundreds of children were killed. All the world’s eyes were turned to South Africa. Despite the government’s ban ,some images was leaked to the world press . Other countries began to impose sanctions and the economy was shaken. Thereupon in 1990, F.W.Klerk declared to make changes and he was elected as the new President of South Africa. Then, Klerk released Mandela on 11 February 1990, the ANC re-opened and negotiations between the ANC and the government has started.

w        r  t          y

Since 1990 Till Now

The new President of South Africa, Klerk lifted the apartheid laws. Blacks and Whites were equal then now. Right of vote were given back to the Black. In the elections of 1994, Nelson Mandela became the president of South Africa. Thanks to the constitution which entered into force in 1997, race, language and religion were no matter, all people considered to be equal. Infrastructure works started in the country, schools were opened, electricity and water were given to places where black people live. Trade promotion programs were prepared. Rapid development began in the country and today, South Africa is one of the richest countries in the world interms of gold and diamond…

u
F. W. de Klerk outside his office after the referendum to end apartheid, March 1992.

o

What about Gini in South Africa ?

p

As can be seen in the table to the left (taken from Race, Class, and Inequality in South Africa), the Gini coefficient for the white population in 1975 stood at a relatively low .36, signifying the success of the apartheid government in bolstering the position of the poorer members of the white community. An essential component of this program was the reservation of well-paying jobs for the white population. Furthermore, when taking into account welfare expenditures and educational opportunities, the white population actually had greater equality than the Gini index shows.

Of course, this leveling of the economic differences within the white population was dependent on the widening gap between white South Africans and everyone else, especially the black Africans. Because the apartheid government restricted the professions that blacks could choose, blacks were basically limited to lower-level jobs. In fact, this upper limit also facilitated an increase in equality within the black population, as even the well-educated blacks could not find well-paying jobs.

Helin Azizoglu
11324054

Sources:

http://www.geocurrents.info/economic-geography/inequality-trends-in-south-africa

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~shafi20k/nelson%20mandela.html